Essential Evidence-Based Medicine teaches the principles of research study methodology and design so that the reader can become better at critically analysing scientific and clinical studies. It describes the basic elements needed to understand biostatistics and epidemiology as applied to health care studies, and how to become a more discriminating reader of the medical literature by adopting the skills of critical appraisal. This new edition is extensively edited and updated, and includes two entirely new chapters on critical appraisal of qualitative research and communicating risks and evidence to patients. The text is geared towards the new learner, and assumes little clinical experience, starting with the basic principles of critical appraisal. A CD-ROM accompanies the book to enable students to test their learning through a series of questions, with answers provided. This is an ideal introductory text for medical students, health sciences students and a wide range of other healthcare professionals.Table of Contents PrefaceAcknowledgements1. A brief history of medicine and statistics2. What is evidence-based medicine?3. Causation4. The medical literature: an overview5. Searching the medical literature Sandi Pirozzo and Elizabeth Irish6. Study design and strength of evidence7. Instruments and measurements: precision and validity8. Sources of bias9. Review of basic statistics10. Hypothesis testing11. Type I errors and number needed to treat12. Negative studies and Type II errors13. Risk assessment14. Multivariate analysis15. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs)16. Scientific integrity and the responsible conduct of research John E. Kaplan17. Applicability and strength of evidence18. Communicating evidence to patients Laura J. Zakowski, Shobhina G. Chheda and Christing S. Seibert19. Critical appraisal of qualitative research studies Steven R. Simon20. An overview of decision making in medicine21. Sources of error in the clinical encounter22. The use of diagnostic tests23. Utility and characteristics of diagnostic tests: likelihood ratios, sensitivity and specificity24. Bayes' theorem, predictive values, post-test probabilities, and interval likelihood ratios25. Comparing tests and using ROC curves26. Incremental gain and the threshold approach to diagnostic testing27. Sources of bias and critical appraisal of studies of diagnostic tests28. Screening tests29. Practice guidelines and clinical prediction rules30. Decision analysis and quantifying patient values31. Cost-effectiveness analysis32. Outcome analysis33. Meta-analysis and systematic reviewsAppendix 1. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendationsAppendix 2. Overview of critical appraisalAppendix 3. FormulasAppendix 4. Commonly used statistical testsAppendix 5. Proof of Bayes' theoremAppendix 6. Using balance sheets to calculate thresholdsGlossaryBibliographyIndex.
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Titolo: Essential Evidence - based Medicine - CD - Rom included
Editore: Cambridge University Press
Edizione: II 2009
Finitura: Copertina rigida
Misure: 18x24 cm