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copertina di Apoptotic Chromatin Changes - DVD included

Apoptotic Chromatin Changes - DVD included

di Banfalvi  • 2009  • dettagli prodotto

non più pubblicato

€  183,03


The Greek word apoptosis was used first by Hippocrates as a synonyme of dislocations of the bones, structural changes related to tissue, by Marcus Aurelius in political and social context as failure and decline. The physician Galen extended the medical meaning of apoptosis to wound healing and inflammation. Apoptosis, or cell suicide is an integral part of life cycle of plants and animals indicated by the loss of 140-190g (50-70 billion) cells each day in the human adult, amounting to the body weight in one year. The growing interest in apoptosis is indicated by the number of scientific publications since the 1990s which is now more than 140,000 and will exceed 160,000 by the end of 2008.The unique feature of this book is the use of synhronized and reversibly permeabilized cells allowing to visualize the dynamic nature of chromatin condensation through transitory chromatin and chromosomal forms including changes upon genotoxic treatment, which were not seen earlier. The chromatin condensation process is illustrated from string (DNA) to rope (chromosomes) in more than 160 figures. The DVD attachment provides the vivid performance of "danse macabre" and allows the viewer to travel inside the 3D chromatin and chromosomes using the joystick or mouse of your computer. The interdisciplinary nature of studies summarized in the book facilitate the global view of readers interested in the higher order structure of nucleic acids. The wealth of additional information will attract a wide population of readers. The natural audience engaged in DNA research such as genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology will find that it contains essential material.Table of contents I. DNA EMPIRESummaryHistorical events leading to the recognition of core processes of genetic informationRNA WorldPre-RNA WorldAdditional arguments supporting the RNA World hypothesisBasic principles of the transfer of genetic informationCore information processes belonging to the DNA EmpireWhen did DNA evolve?Molecular oxygen serving the transition from RNA World to DNA EmpireSaturation of seawater with oxygen and development of oxygen atmosphere Advantage of oxygen productionOxygen the Janus faced moleculeProtection of anaerobes from oxygen toxicityFree radical formation during the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotidesCellular responses to DNA damageConceptual changes in gene stabilityPrimary information on cytotoxicity obtained at DNA levelDetection of genotoxic changes at the structural level of DNAEnzymatic detection of cellular lesions: too lateEarly detection of cytotoxicity: at DNA levelConclusionsReferencesII. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF DNASummaryBuilding blocks of nucleic acidsStructure of nucleotidesNucleic acid basesTypesAromatic character, planar structure of nucleic acid basesFree nucleic acid basesLight absorptionApolar interactionsHypochrome, hyperchrome effectMajor, minor and rare basesBase analoguesAntimetabolitesSugar component of nucleotidesWhy ribose was selected as the sugar component of nucleic acidsCriteria for sugar selection Phosphate as nucleotide componentBond types in nucleotidesNomenclature of bases, nucleosides and nucleotidesMetabolism of nucleotidesDe novo biosynthesisBasic conception of biosynthesisRibonucleotide biosynthesisDeoxyribonucleotide biosynthesisdNDP--dNTP conversiondUMP formationThymidilate formation (dUMP--dTMP)Regulation of nucleotide biosynthesisDegradation of nucleotidesBiosynthesis of coenzymesTissue specific purine synthesis Function of nucleotides DNA structureStructural levels of DNA Primary structure of DNASecondary DNA structures H-bondsB-DNAA-DNAZ-DNACruciform DNABent DNA structuresTransition from right-handed to left-handed DNATetraplex (quadruplex) DNADifferences in the structure of DNA and RNATertiary structure of DNA (topology)Thermodinamic aspects of supercoilingTopoisomerasesModels of gyrase actionSign inversion and torsional model of supercoilingRotating model of negative supercoilingTopology of eukaryotic DNANucleosome, the supercoil analogue in eukaryotesSupranucleosomal (chromosomal) organization of DNAEarly chromatin modelsSolenoid versus zig-zag modelPossible fibril arrangementsHairpin modelPlectonemic model of chromatin condensationChromosomes of animal cellsEukaryotic genome size and DNA compactionChromosome numberMetaphase chromosomesCentromere and teleomere regions of chromosomesVariation in DNA content, C-value paradoxVariation in chromosome number Karyotype, chromosome sizeGenetic linkagePhysical mappingSex chromosomesChromosomal aberrationsGenetic diversityEukaryotic cell cycleCytogeneticsGenesTemporal and spatial order of gene replicationDNA is replicated and repaired in several subphases ReferencesIII. CHROMATIN CONDENSATIONSummaryImportance of chromatin condensationActive and inactive chromatin Euchromatin and heterochromatinHistone code hypothesisChromosome arrangement in the nucleusModels of chromosome condensationChromatin folding in the interphase nucleus is poorly understoodChromatin modelsReview of methodologiesMethods to visualize chromosome condensation during the cell cycleCentrifugal elutriationPermeable cellsTechnical limitations to visualize large scale chromatin structuresReversible permeabilizationIsolation of interphase chromosomes: visualizing "babies" before bir Visualization of intermediates of chromatin condensation in CHO cellsBiotinylation interpheres with chromatin foldingDecondensed chromatin structures after biotinylationGlobular, supercoiled, fibrous, ribboned structures upon DNA biotinylationChromatin condensation of non-biotinylated DNA studied in synchronized cellsDecondensed chromatin structures in cells synchronized in early S phase Transition from veiled to ribboned structures in cells synchronized in early mid S phaseLinear connection of chromosomes in condensing interphase chromatin in cells synchronized at late mid S phaseDistinct forms of early chromosomes in cells synchronized at the end of S phaseChromatin image analysisLinear connection of condensing chromosomes in nuclei during cell cycleLinear connection of isolated chromosomesLinear connection of chromosomes inside the nucleusCommon pathway of chromatin condensation in mammalian cellsDecondensed chromatin structures at the unset of S phase Supercoiled chromatin in early S From veiled to fibrous structures later in early S phase Transition to ribboned chromatin structures in early mid S phase Chromatin bodies after the mid S phase pause Early chromosomes later in mid S phase Early elongated forms of chromosomes Final stage of chromosome condensation Chromatin condensation in resting and chemically induced tumors of rat hepatocytesTransmission of hepatocellular tumor with the HeDe cell line Decondensed chromatin structures in resting hepatocytesTransition from round chromatin bodies (karyosomes) to linear chromosomes in murine preB and CHO cells Cytometric analysis of synchronized preB cell populationsChromatin structures excluded from nuclei of preB cellsCondensation of round shaped interphase chromosomes in preB cellsKaryogram of early interphase chromosomesLinear connection of chromosomes excluded from nuclei of CHO cellsCondensation of interphase chromosomes in CHO cellsStructure of interphase chromosomes in Drosophila cells Synchronization of Drosophila cells at low resolution of elutriationCytometric analysis of Drosophila cells synchronized at low resolution of elutriationChromatin condensation in synchronized Drosophila cellsChromatin rodlets in nuclei of Drosophila cellsLinear arrangement of Drosophila chromosomes Interphase chromosomal forms in nuclei of Drosophila cells Intermediates of chromatin condensation in Drosophila cells at high resolution of synchronizationHigh resolution of synchrony of elutriated fractions and DNA synthesis in synchronized cellsMajor steps and structures of chromatin condensation in DrosophilaBuilding units of Drosophila chromosomesFolding of nucleosomal chromatin string in Drosophila cellsPlectonemic model of chromatin condensation in Drosophila cellsReferencesIV. APOPTOSISSummaryHistoryIncreased scientific interest to understand apoptosisRelationship of apoptosis to genetic communicationDestruction of biological information Have you ever seen apoptosis?What triggers apoptosis?Apoptosis (type I programmed cell death) and necrosisCharacterization of apoptosisTypes of programmed cell deathType I cell death (apoptosis)Pathways of type I cell deathAlternative pathways of programmed cell deathType II programmed cell death ParaptosisMitotic catastrophe Necrosis-like programmed cell death Dark cell deathNecrosisMorphological differences between necrosis and apoptosisInduction of apoptosisElegant experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans model organismRegulation of apoptosisExtrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosisExtrinsic (caspase 8) pathwayIntrinsic (mitochondrial) pathwayGlutamate downregulates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosisCytochrome c: with or without itApotosome formationApoptosis inducing signalsChemical inducers of apoptosis Chromatin breakdownRepair and apoptosisRepair enzymesBreadown of proteinsProteasesCaspasesFragmentation of DNA Apoptotic pathwaysIrradiation and stress-induced apoptosisIrradiation-induced apoptosisFree radical induced apoptosis Induction of nucleasesDevelopmentally induced cell deathGranzyme mediated apoptosisInduction of apoptosis trough death receptors FAS signalling pathwayTumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced apoptosisCaspase-dependent initiation of apoptosis and necrosisActivation of initiator caspasesp53 in normal and deregulated cancer cellsGeneral structure and levels of p53 in cellsFunction of p53 in cell cycle Role of p53 in DNA repairCell cycle arrest at increased level of p53Role of p53 in apoptosisp53 signaling pathwayHypoxia and p53 Apoptosis triggered by chemical DNA damageApoptotic DNA fragmentation and tissue homeostasisCheckpoint signaling in response to DNA damageRetinoids as apoptotic agentsTrombospondin induced apoptosis in angiogenesisAntiapoptotic pathways Reverse effects of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in apoptosis and in cell survivalAkt pathway promotes cell survivalInactivation of p53 in malignant transformation of cells Viral oncoproteins inactivate p53 Wild-type level and overexpression of p53 Antitapoptotic pathways by growth factor activation Stress induction of heat shock protein regulationAlternative mechanisms to supress apoptosis by cytokines Nicotinic acethylcholine receptors against apoptosisTrefoil factors for mucosal healing Transgenic mice for apoptotic researchApoptosis protocols Staining dead cellsTUNEL assay ISEL (In Situ End Labeling) (LEP). DNA ladderingAnnexin V analysisFluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)Light scattering flow cytometry Comet assayApoptosis proteinsDetection of mono- and oligonucleosomes Anti-Fas mAbp53 protein analysis Caspase staining kitsReferences V. APOPTOTIC CHROMATIN CHANGESSummaryGenotoxic agents Changes in DNA structure caused by genotoxic agentsChemical mutagens causing air pollutionChemical mutagens and carcinogens in food Heavy metalsRadiation-exposure Chromatin changes upon genotoxic treatmentChemically induced chromatin changesChromatin structures in nuclei of hepatocellular tumor cellsFluorescence intensity histograms of chromatin imagesHeavy metal induced citotoxicityRelationship between replicative and repair DNA synthesis during the cell cycle Cadmium as a genotoxic and carcinogenic agentBiochemical and morphological changes generated by cadmium treatment of CHO cellsInhibition of replicative DNA synthesis at low Cd concentration in CHO cellsSubphases of nuclear growth revealed by cadmium treatmentInterphase chromatin structures in nuclei of untreated synchronized CHO cellsChanges in chromatin structure upon Cd treatmentApoptotic bodies in early S phase (2.2-2.5 C)Ribboned chromatin margination in early mid S phase (2.5-3.0 C)Perichromatin fibers and chromatin bodies in mid S phase (3.0-3.4 C)Intra-nuclear inclusions, perichromatin granules and elongated forms of chromosomes in late S phase (3.4-3.9 C)Contradictory results of cadmium treatment in different mammalian cells Resolving contradictory results caused by the cadmium treatment Effect of cadmium on replicative DNA synthesis in permeable murine preB cellsEffect of cadmium concentration on cell growth during the cell cycleReplicative and repair DNA synthesis upon Cd treatment during the cell cycle Relationship between cell density and cadmium toxicityInterphase chromatin structures in untreated preB cells Apoptotic changes in chromatin structure after cadmium treatment of murine preB cellsConclusions: biochemical and morphological effects of CdEffect of ionizing radiation on chromatin structureGamma irradiation-induced apoptosis in murine preB cellsRegeneration of cellular membrane after y-irradiationEarly S phase block after y-irradiationChange in cell and nuclear sizes after y-irradiationFibrous, supercoiled chromatin and precondensed chromosomal structures in non-irradiated pre B cellsApoptotic changes in chromatin structure after y-irradiationGamma irradiation-induced apoptosis in radiation resistant human erythroleukemia K562 cellsCharacterization of K562 cell populations obtained by centrifugal elutriation Changes in cell size and nuclear size after irradiation of K562 cells Flow cytometric forward scatter analysisIntermediates of chromatin condensation in unirradiated K562 cells Apoptotic chromatin changes after y-irradiation in K562 cellsEarly S phase Early mid S phase Mid S phase Later in mid S phaseLate S phaseConclusions: effects of y-irradiationPreapoptotic chromatin changes induced by ultraviolet B irradiation in human erythroleukemia K562 cellsBiochemical and morphological changes generated by UV-irradiationCell viability and DNA synthesis in permeable cellsEffect of ultraviolet irradiation on replicative and repair DNA synthesis in permeable cellsFlow cytometric analysis after UV irradiation Restoration of nucleoside incorporation after irradiation in intact cellsCell cycle analysis in intact and UV irradiated cellsInterphase chromatin structures in non-irradiated cellsChanges in chromatin structure after UV irradiationFinal stage of chromatin condensation after UV irradiationSummarizing the apoptotic changes of genotoxic treatmentsMorphological similarities and differences between UV and gamma irradiationReferences


ISBN: 9781402095603

Titolo: Apoptotic Chromatin Changes - DVD included


Editore: Springer Verlag

Volume: Unico

Edizione: 2009

Lingua: Inglese

Finitura: Copertina rigida

Pagine: 412